Goats are an important part of the rural economy. Goat farming is done mainly for meat, milk, fibre, and skins. Goat rearing is becoming an increasingly popular business. However, starting a goat farming farm is the most important factor in ensuring good profit in a short period. Apart from meat, goats provide other products such as milk, skin, fibre, and manure.

Goats provide food to millions of small and marginal farmers around the globe. However, the productivity of goats under prevailing traditional production systems is very low. They are maintained under an extensive natural vegetation system on degraded common grazing lands. Therefore, rearing goats under intensive and semi-intensive systems using improved technology for commercial production utilizes their full potential and increases the demand for (goat meat) in the domestic and international markets. Below are the better management practices that can bring maximum profit from goat farming.

How to start Goat farming

Minimal required goat for farming

  • Commercial goat farming needs 1 male goat (buck) for every 20 female goats (does). 
  • Ensure healthy and strong males for breeding. Most female goats become pregnant at 18-20 months of age. 
  • Most experienced farmers recommend starting slow and buying at least two goats first. Others will be overwhelmed and immediately buy ten goats. 
  • It will help if you remember that your does and bucks will soon have kids who add to the herd.

Time taking for a goat to grow

Female goats generally mature at 6 to 10 months, depending on breed, size, and weight. Male goats become adults at 12 months of age. 

Goat farming is profitable Business 

  1. Goat farming is profitable, and you can start with less capital. 
  2. These tips can also be valuable for beginners in starting goat farming. 
  3. The goat farming business can easily be profitable with proper planning and management. Small-scale goat farming needs less investment, and profits can contribute to your regular income. However, commercial production requires more investment and additional costs.
  4. Buying a healthy, good-quality breed for your goat farm is essential. After all, you are investing in the future of the goat farming business and want to make sure the breed you choose grows and thrives in the environment.
  5. Apart from taking care of animal health, it is also important to note that different breeds have been bred for specific traits such as meat or milk production. As a result, some goat breeds may have better traits than others, so check with an expert before committing to a particular breed.

Benefits of goat farming

  1. Almost everyone consumes goat meat, and there is no religious restriction. Also, goat meat is lean meat and has low cholesterol content. 
  2. The initial investment required to start goat farming is much less than that required for dairy farming. 
  3. Starting a farm with a herd of 6-10 goats is unnecessary. You can easily start the farm with a couple of goats first and can be gradually expanded to a herd or developed into large commercial units. 
  4. Goats can tolerate bitter tastes to a greater extent than other animals. Goats eat almost all types of plants that other animals do not eat. 
  5. Because they are careful eaters, they can live in almost all weather conditions. 
  6. Goat milk includes small fat globules that are easily digested. 
  7. Minimal space required: Goats are small animals. As a result, they need less space than some other domestic animals. Their housing requirements are low, so a house with minimal amenities will suffice. 
  8. Low feeding requirements: Goats require less feed because they are small animals. As a result, several breeds of goats in India can thrive on poor-quality feed.

Comparatiave profit between Goat or cow 

Goat farming is highly profitable, even better than cows or sheep. They prefer raising goats for milk because they are smaller than cows, eat less, are less expensive to buy and feed, are easier to handle (whether alive or dead), and produce more manageable amounts of milk. 

Goats Farming is Less Expensive 

Although getting a goat and everything you need to care for them is expensive, the month-to-month cost is relatively low. Aside from their food and bedding, you don’t need anything else to take care of them, and none of those things is that expensive. 

Fence for goats

  • Common fencing materials include posts, bracing wire, staples, stretchers, etc. Non-climbing goat and horse wire fences are generally suitable for goat fencing because it’s stronger, heavier, and stronger than a regular fence (but they can be more expensive). 
  • To protect your animals, it is important to choose the best security fence within your means, whether you have a small farm, a large pasture, or an urban home. There are six factors to consider when choosing the best fence for goats, all equally important. These include the number of goats you have, the size of the area to be fenced, whether you want an electric fence, whether you prefer alternative fencing, were to the fence, and how much you want to spend. 
  • Goats require special fencing. The best fence for goats should generally be four to five feet high. Educating yourself and reading about goats can be very helpful in making fencing decisions, especially with goats. 
  • The fence should be charged at 4,500 to 9,000 volts at all times (some experts recommend 7,000 to 10,000 volts). If you open the fence, the goats will know. Some goats may require electric and non-electric fencing. In any pasture, maintenance is essential, but for a forest or hilly area, you’ll need to walk the area frequently to check for fallen limbs, weeds, and other debris. The area under the electric wire should be clear, so the fence does not protrude from the ground.
  • In areas where jumping is likely, such as over fences intended to protect a garden or isolate money from heat, ensure the fence is high enough to prevent the Goat from trying to jump. A 4- to 5-foot (1.2–1.5 meters) fence is satisfactory for most goats. 

Raising of goats for different Business Goal 

  1. Breeding and selling
  2. Sale of milk and milk products for profit
  3. Goat meat
  4. Money from different sales channels
  5. Goatskin

Goat pregnancy Time 

A normal-sized domestic goat has a gestation period of 145 to 155 days. It means that the average length of time is 150 days. It works for about five months, or 21 weeks, give or take a few days. 

Earning from goats

The possibilities are endless if you are raising goats for profit. It is because you can generate many sources of income from a herd of goats. For example, suppose selling goats for profit, earning at least Rs.5000 each. At the same time, you can sell their milk and fibre and produce other by-products from their various parts. The basic requirements of the goat farming business include: 

  • Buy good quality breeds for your goat farm. 
  • Please provide them with the necessary housing and food. 
  • Buy some good-quality male goats of your chosen breed. 
  • You should consider the cost and other requirements before starting this business. For example, if required, you must obtain a breeding permit from the relevant authority in your city or state.

Space requirement for Goats 

  • Goat farming with other livestock (such as sheep and cattle) can be very suitable for production on low-quality grazing land. 
  • Goat generally needs at least 20 square feet of indoor space. It is an excellent general estimate, especially if you have a lot of rain or snow that will keep the goats under the roof for a long time. 
  • Goats are good tools for improving rangeland health and reducing bush encroachment. 
  • Goats are social animals and should be allowed to keep at least two together. Each Goat should have at least a quarter of an acre of space. 

Hurddles in goat farming

In order of priority, the problems encountered in goat farming included a lack of a good, formal and reliable market for the sale of goats, lack of capital, lack of goat-rearing training, and stock theft. Some other issues are mentioned below;

  • Predator problem
  • Risk of robbery
  • An attack of disease
  • Irregular vaccination
  • Caring for a pregnant doe
  • Feeding problems
  • The issue of sanitary management
  • Mixing of breeds

Reason for Goat expensiveness 

Goat meat costs more than other meats because goats are difficult to raise (high nutritional and space requirements), and the meat yield per Goat is low (compared to other common meat animals). 

Low Cost feed for goats 

  • Hay is a good source of goat nutrition. Feed your Goat mould-free qualified grass-based hay. You can also feed your goats hay as it is very cheap and contains many essential nutrients. 
  • Goats are picky eaters and can tolerate more bitterness than other animals. Therefore, they can thrive on agricultural by-products, waste, and other food. Also, they are strong and withstand all kinds of weather conditions. Furthermore, their tongues are adapted for grazing, and their upper lips are mobile. Therefore, they can graze on very short grasses, shrubs, bushes, and trees. Therefore, besides pulses, wheat, maize, etc., goats should also be given leguminous fodder.
  • A fodder plan is an essential aspect of goat farming. Therefore, a proper fodder plan and management of fodder costs are essential to earning good profit in this goat farming business. 
  • Goat grain can be made from a combination of corn, barley, oats, and soybeans – it’s high in calories (high in energy), but low in fibre, which means too much can make goats obese. 

Easiest goats breed to raise

As mentioned earlier, Nubian and Pygmy goats are incredibly easy to get along with and are some of the best goat breeds for the Nubian people. In addition, these two are often seen as the best goat breeds for beginners. 

Method of goat breeding

There are generally four main breeding systems in the goat and sheep industry: This method involves selecting a buck/ram for a doe/ewe and mating them.

  • Pen breeding
  • Artificial insemination (AI) 
  • Out-of-season breeding

Choosing the correct doe and doe is the secret to successful breeding. Goats mature between 6-10 months of age. However, it also depends on size, body weight, and breed. Goat bucks mature after 12 months. Two kiddings per year with an interval of 8-9 months is ideal for maximum yield. The peak breeding season for goats is March to May and September to November. The oestrous cycle usually occurs every 17-21 days. 

A doe has a heat period of 18-36 hours. To increase conception rates, the doe should meet the doe only 10-15 hours after the onset of heat. The gestation period lasts for 155 days. While females can be used for breeding for 5-7 years, males can be used for 8-10 years.

Sunlight is essential for Goats 

Goats love the heat; however, it’s a good idea to provide shade for them. They graze a bit throughout the day, but you will find them seeking protection from the bright sun in the afternoon. You can build shade trees for your goats with very few shade trees. 

Most profitable Goat Breeds 

  • Selection of goat breed is very important in goat farm as it is the main asset of your business, giving it fast and good growth. 
  • Breed selection is essential in a profitable goat farming business plan. 
  • For starting a goat farming business, the climate plays an important role in the success of the goat farming business.
  • If you are considering starting a goat farm, it is very important to take care of the weather conditions before going into any farming business. 
  • Climate can be very important for your goat farming business, so you must do proper research on different breeds and choose a breed that can easily adapt to different climatic conditions.
  • The important goat breeds are the Jamunapadi Goat, Boar Goat, Beetal Goat, Black Bengal Goat, Barbari Goat, Sirohi Goat, and Gaddi Goat.

Pricing of a goat

Shopkeepers say that the starting price of a goat is Rs. 10,000-12,000, and depending on the size and breed, it can even exceed Rs. 1 lakh. 

Feeding goats to gain more weight 

  • Feed goats with corn or oats. Grain is the fastest and easiest way to fatten a goat because of its high carbohydrate content; your Goat should get no more than 1/2 pound of grain per day. Goats should be trough fed or hand-fed. 
  • Protein is an important source because it helps your Goat build muscle and helps with proper carbohydrate digestion levels. When a goat’s diet lacks protein, carbohydrates are digested too quickly, reducing your Goat’s energy and affecting mineral absorption. The presence of vitamins and minerals in goat fodder is essential. Because vitamins and minerals maintain the production of goats and help protect them from various diseases. They require a lot of vitamins and minerals in their food. 
  • Certain feed elements such as phosphorus, salt, and calcium are useful minerals for goats. First, determine the health status of your goats before feeding them. Then, store feeds in a safe place to maintain feed value. 

Common diseases of goats

  • Brucellosis
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Q fever 
  • Listeriosis
  • Salmonellosis 

Caring goats 

  • Sheds must be washed and disinfected at least once a month. 
  • Feed and water handlers should be cleaned regularly. Goats are prone to endoparasite infections. So every six De-worming should be done once a month. Kids are dewormed every month while deworming is done just before breeding. 
  • Vaccinations against some goat diseases like goat pox, plague, FMD, etc., should be done periodically. It is important to prevent zoonotic diseases like salmonellosis, brucellosis, etc., as they are contagious and spread easily. 
  • Strays animals must not be allowed to enter the farm to keep infections in check. Sick goat breeds should be isolated as soon as the infection is detected, and timely medication must be administered.
  • Providing animals with clean, dry, and ventilated shelter is important. The shelter should be spacious and well-lit. 
  • It must be insulated to maintain a comfortable temperature for goats, which are sensitive to hot or cold weather conditions. Also, it should be kept clean so that diseases and parasites do not infect your animals. 

Starting goat farming in India 

Make sure there is a suitable market near your chosen area to purchase essential items and medicines. Find out if there are other goat farms in your chosen area. A suitable market is available near the selected farm area with high demand for goat products. Try to choose land in the village area. Shelter, fencing, nutrition, and basic health care are the four most important things in raising happy and healthy goats. Goats despise getting wet. 

It is the simplest yet most crucial part of commercial goat farming. If everything goes well and you get enough production, it’s time to market your product. In modern goat farming practices, producers are very conscious of the health of their goats. And it is essential for commercial goat farming. However, diseases are rare in goats. 

Margin in goat farming

  1. Before starting a goat farming business, you must consider the cost and other requirements. 
  2. Housing, feed, and animal care costs are higher than other animals. In addition, you have to spend money on buying goats, land, and equipment for your goat farm. 
  3. Starting a goat farming business in India will also require medicine, a breeding license, or a registration fee to sell milk. 
  4. The profit margin in goat farming is about 50%. However, if you grow goat fodder on the farm, you can increase your profit margin to 80%. 
  5. You must decide on budget and investment before starting goat farming. You should know about your required capital and how many facilities you can get in that capital for goats. From our point of view, the goat farming business is profitable; if you make a good investment, you will get a good return. 

Investment in goat farming

The land cost per square foot is approximately Rs.180. 2000 square feet of land is required for the total number of goats. 1840 square feet of land is needed for the total number of Goats. The cost of buying a goat is 3000 rupees.

Starting a goat farm business

  • Provide housing and fencing for the animals. 
  • Establish reliable food sources for hay and grain. Make room to store hay and grain out of season. 
  • Buy good quality goats to start a business. 
  • Create a breeding schedule. Depending on climate conditions, you generally want to time the birth during spring. 
  • Set aside money for veterinary expenses, which are a part of owning livestock. Like any farm animal, they are prone to diseases. 

License for goat farming in India 

If starting a goat farming business in India, you should contact the local animal department for licensing and other procedures. 

Money required for goat farming

Presently the annual gross income of the goat farm is Rs. 4 to 5 lakhs, and the total annual expenditure is Rs. 1.5 to 2 lakhs per annum net income of 2 to 3 lakhs.

Conclusion

Goat farming has become a highly profitable and competitive industry. But before getting into this business, it is essential to know some facts about goats. Raising goats for meat can be a very exciting and rewarding experience, but it can also be very challenging. However, with a little preparation and understanding of goat nutritional needs, even the most sophisticated farmer can raise happy, healthy, fat goats. The above information is the excellent tips and benefits of rearing goats and making maximum profit.

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